• E-mail encryption
  • E-mail signature
  • Off-line encryption of data (files)
  • Hard disk encryption
  • On-line authentication for web servers, access control systems, flexitime terminals
  • Off-line authentication for web servers, e.g., with one-time passwords
  • Payment systems for closed user groups
  • Logging onto computers (e.g., WinLogon under WINDOWS operating system)
  • This list is an example and is not complete.